Plant breeding, application of genetic principles to produce plants that are more useful to humans. This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be economically or aesthetically desirable, first by controlling the mating of selected individuals, and then by selecting certain individuals among the progeny. Such processes, repeated over many generations, can change the hereditary makeup and value of a plant population far beyond the natural limits of previously existing populations. This article emphasizes the application of genetic principles to the improvement of plants; the biological factors underlying plant breeding are dealt with in the article heredity. For a discussion on transgenic crops, see genetically modified organisms.
Plant breeding is an ancient activity, dating to the very beginnings of agriculture. Probably soon after the earliest domestications of cereal grains, humans began to recognize degrees of excellence among the plants in their fields and saved seed from the best for planting new crops. Such tentative selective methods were the forerunners of early plant-breeding procedures.
The results of early plant-breeding procedures were conspicuous. Most present-day varieties are so modified from their wild progenitors that they are unable to survive in nature. Indeed, in some cases, the cultivated forms are so strikingly different from existing wild relatives that it is difficult even to identify their ancestors. These remarkable transformations were accomplished by early plant breeders in a very short time from an evolutionary point of view, and the rate of change was probably greater than for any other evolutionary event.
Language: English ISBN-10: 9789327252323 ISBN-13: 978-9327252323 ASIN: 9327252322
Plant pathology or phytopathology is the science, which deals with the plant diseases. It is concerned with health and productivity of growing plants. Phytopathology ( Greek Phyton = plant + pathos – disease, ailments + logos = discourse, knowledge) is the branch of agricultural, botanical or biological science which deals with the cause, etiology (aetiology), resulting in losses and management methods of plant diseases. Plant pathology can also be defined as the study of the nature, cause and prevention of plant diseases. Plant pathology is related to most of the old and new sciences like biology, physics, chemistry, physiology, mathematics, genetics, soil science, biochemistry, biotechnology etc. Plant pathology has the following major objectives.
Plant Pathology is the study of plant diseases including:1) causes, 2) mechanisms by which diseases occur, 3) interactions between plants and disease-causing agents, and 4) controlling diseases. There are a large number of guiding principles in Plant Pathology, which are often difficult to formulate because biology has so few absolutes. Here are 10 principles, which may aid in understanding, diagnosing and controlling diseases of ornamental plants.
Seed pathology makes a comprehensive study of the seed borne diseases and pathogens. Mechanisms of infection, seed transmission, role of seed-borne inocula in seed development, techniques for detection of seed-borne pathogens and non-pathogens, seed certification standards all these make up for the curriculum of the subject. Besides, diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, viroids, etc., and the physiological and mechanical disorders of seeds, are also important factors contributing to the study. This book seeks to facilitate the reader to grasp the basic principles of seed pathology. With the immense potential of seed science and techno-logy to made huge contributions to the future of agricultural sector, seed pathology should be all set to gain from such a scientific revolution. Bringing forth a comprehensive analysis of the subject, it is hoped that this manual fosters an enriching learning experience for the reader. Contents Chapter 1: Seed Pathology; Chapter 2: Evaluation of Integrated Plant Pathology; Chapter 3: Diagnosis of Pesticides in Seed Sector; Chapter 4: Applied Plant Pathology; Chapter 5: Agro-Biodiversity and Seed Security; Chapter 6: Seed Sector and Food Security; Chapter 7: Seed Storage; Chapter 8: Forest Seed Handling; Chapter 9: Seed Treatment for Agronomic Crops; Chapter 10: Blind Seed Diseases
Hardcover: 270 pages Publisher: Gene-Tech Books (1 December 2008) Language: English ISBN-10: 8189729926 ISBN-13: 978-8189729929
The Indian Phytopathological Society (IPS) is a professional forum for promoting the cause of Phytopathology. It is the third largest society of plant pathologists in the world. The Society was established in February 28, 1947 at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi by Dr. B.B. Mundkur, an eminent Plant Pathologist. The Society is an international scientific organization devoted to the study of plant diseases and their control. The Society provides information on the latest developments and research advances in plant health science through its journals and participates in the exchange of plant health information with public policy makers, and the larger scientific community; and provides opportunities for scientific communication, collaboration, and professional development.
Indian agriculture registered a phenomenal growth in the recent past mainly due to the development of varieties resistant to pathogen and adoption of the latest plant protection measures. A lot more needs to be done to sustain the momentum gained. In this context, the contribution of the Society in bringing to focus the area of research on diverse aspects of plant-pathogen is invaluable. Advanced techniques for rapid, reliable, and specific detection and characterization of the pathogen is promoted. Identification of resistance genes and their source, development of molecular markers for resistance, environmental health by promoting bio-control agents, and growth-promoting bacteria and transgenic resistance, as well as host-pathogen interaction, are some of the issues, IPS through its various activities trying to crystallize the concepts and its implications in future. In the new millennium, IPS will co-ordinate and will provide impetus to the amalgamation of molecular plant pathology and the practical plant pathology to mitigate the disease losses. It is expected that in the foreseeable future, a knowledge-based economy will provide the platform to sustain a rapid rate of economic growth to achieve the objectives. IPS shall remain committed to its core competencies within chemical, biochemical and biotechnological crop disease management to coexist in the future.
Publisher: Indian Phytopathological Society (2011) ISBN-10: 8184659598 ISBN-13: 978-8184659597
Phycology is the study of algae, a ubiquitous and extremely important range of species ecologically because of the dependence of other species on their primary production. This third edition of Phycology is designed to serve both as a textbook for a one-semester course and also as a reference on modern concepts in the study of algae.
Algae are divided into four natural groups and chapters on each group cover the cytology, morphology, physiology, life cycles, ecology, and systematics, all presented in a manner that can be understood by readers with a basic knowledge of biology. The use of clear, concise drawings, as well as the special emphasis placed on those algae that are commonly covered in phycology courses, and encountered by students in marine and freshwater habitats, has led to the establishment of this book as a classic introductory text suitable for courses throughout the world.
This new edition offers a larger, more student-friendly format, along with fully updated reference sections and coverage of hot topics such as toxic algae, ozone depletion, and gene sequencing.
Title :Phycology Author : Robert Edward Lee Edition: illustrated, revised Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 1999 ISBN : 0521638836, 9780521638838 Length : 614 pages
his work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work.
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Title : The Morphology of Pteridophytes; the Structure of Ferns and Allied Plants – Scholar’s Choice Edition Author : K. R. Sporne Publisher : Creative Media Partners, LLC, 2015 ISBN : 129802935X, 9781298029355 Length : 196 pages
Medicinal plants. Being descriptions with original figures of the principal plants employed in medicine and an account of their properties and uses.
This book, “Medicinal plants”, by Robert Bentley, Henry Trimen, is a replication of a book originally published before 1875. It has been restored by human beings, page by page, so that you may enjoy it in a form as close to the original as possible. This book was created using print-on-demand technology. Thank you for supporting the classic literature.
Title : Medicinal Plants Author : Robert Bentley Publisher : Read Books Design, 2010 ISBN : 1445576627, 9781445576626 Length : 544 pages
In these days of intense activity, when hundreds of papers are being published in every field of botany in a steadily increasing number of periodicals and in a multitude of languages, no apology is needed for an attempt to summarize the existing state of our knowledge in any branch of the subject and to point out the future possibilities in it. Since the publication of Coulter and Chamberlain’s “Morphology of Angiosperms” in 1903, no comprehensive account of this aspect of botany has appeared in the English language
The original impetus for writing this work resulted from a course of lectures that I gave on the subject in 1930 when I was teaching at the Agra College. Several colleagues and pupils then suggested that I should produce a book on the embryology of angiosperms. This suggestion was repeated by Professor G. Tischler of the University of Kiel, whom I visited in 1936. Teaching and administrative duties and other difficulties made it impossible for me to carry on this work in India at the speed I should have liked. Soon after the war was over in 1945, therefore, I took the manuscript to the United States in order to revise it and put it in shape for publication
In a strict sense, embryology is confined to a study of the embryo, but most botanists also include under it the events which lead to fertilization. I am in agreement with this wider comprehension of the subject and have therefore included in this volume not only an account of the embryo and endosperm but also an account of the development of the male and female gametophytes and fertilization. To emphasize the recent trends of research in the subject, two chapters of a general nature have been added, one dealing with embryology in relation to taxonomy, and the other with experimental embryology. In the former, an attempt has been made to indicate the possibilities of the embryological method in the solution of problems of systematic botany. In the latter, the emphasis has been placed on the contacts between embryology, cytology, genetics, and plant physiology
Language: English Publisher: Franklin Classics Trade Press Genre: HISTORY / General ISBN: 9780353243347, 9780353243347
1. Phylum Chordata: An Introduction PROTOCHORDATES2. Type 1. Balanoglossus: A Tongue Worm3. Subphylum I. Hemichardata4. Type 2. Herdmania: A Sea-Squirt5. Subphylum II. Urochordata6. Type 3. Branchiostoma (= Amphioxus): The Laneelet7. Subphylum III. Cephalochordata 8. Protochordate: General and Comparative SECTION IILOWER VERTEB ES9. Subphylum IV. Vertebrata10. Class 1. Ostracodermi (Extinct) 11. Type 4. Petromyzon: The Lamprey12. Class 2. Cyclostomata13. Class 3. Placodermi (Extinct)14. Type 5. Scoliodon: The Dogfish: A Cartilaginous Fish15. Class 4. Chondrichthyes: The Cartilaginous Fishes 16. Type 6. Labeo rohita: Rohu: A Bony Fish 17. Class 5. Osteichthyes: The Bony Fishes 18. Superclass Pisces and Fish General19.Type 7.Rana Tigrina: Common Indian Bull Frog Now Called as Hoplobatrachus tigrinus20. Class 6. Amphibia21. Amphibia: General Account SECTION IIIHIGHER VERTEBRATES22. Type 8. Uromastix hardwickii: The Spiny Tailed Lizard23. Type 9. Calotes Versicolor: The Garden Lizard 24. Snakes: General Account 25. Class 7. Reptilia26. Reptilia: General Account27. Type 10. Calumba Livia: The Common Rock Pigeon28. Class 8. Aves: The Birds 29. Aves: General Account30. Type 1 1. Oryctolagus: The Rabbit 31. Class 9. Mammalia32, Subclass Prototheria (Order Monotremata) 33. Infraclass Metatheria (Order Marsupialia)34. Mammalia: General AccountSECTION IVVERTEBRATE OSTEOLOGY35. Endoskeleton of Scoliodon 36. Endoskeleton of Labeo rohita37. Endoskeleton of Frog38. Endoskeleton of Varanus39. Endoskeleton of Fowl40. Endoskeleton of Rabbit 41. Introduction of Vertebrate Embryology42. Development of Balanoglossus 43. Development of Herdmania 44. Development of Branchiostoma 45. Development of Frog46. Development of Chick (Fowl) 47. Development of Rabbit 48. Placentation in MammalsSECTION VIMISCELLANY49. Organ Histology of Frog and Rabbit 50. Wild Life of India SECTION VIIICOMPARATIVE ANATOMY OFVERTEBRATES51. Integument and its Derivatives in Vertebrates52. Endoskeleton in Vertebrates53. Digestive System in Vertebrates 54. Respiratory System in Vertebrates55. Circulatory System in Vertebrates56. Urinogenital System in Vertebrates57. Nervous System in Vertebrates58. Receptor Organs in Vertebrates59, Endocrine System in Vertebrates60. some Comparative Charts of Vertebrate Animals TypesGlossarySelected References
Handbook on Mushrooms, 4/e (CBS reprint) Be the first to review this product. SKU: 9788120413993. No food is so wrapped in mystery as mushroom. It is amazing to see tiny pin heads on a tray of dung and straw growing into buttons rich in protein, vitamins and minerals.
No food is so wrapped in mystery as mushroom. It is amazing to see tiny pin heads on a tray of dung and straw growing into buttons rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. Unfortunately mushrooms have not received universal acceptance over the years since a number of naturally growing mushrooms are poisonous. Today the situation has changed because the cultivated edible species of mushrooms are safe for human consumption.Contents: Introduction / History of Mushroom Cultivation / Food Value of Mushrooms / Uses of Mushrooms / Morphology of Mushroom / Cultivation of White Button Mushroom / Cultivation of Agaricus bitorquis / Cultivation of Paddy Straw Mushroom / Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. / Common Edible Mushrooms of India / Cultivation of Stropharia rugoso annulata / Cultivation of Auricularia spp. (Jew s ear) / Cultivation of Flammulina velutipes / Cultivation of Pholiota nameko / Cultivation of Shiitake (Lentius edodes) / Delicious Recipies of Mushroom / References / Index
Publisher: Oxford & IBH Pub. Co (1984) Language: English ASIN: B0007B3GF8