The foundations of the science of war

The Foundations of the Science of War is a compilation of material presented by Fuller when he was chief instructor, Staff College, Camberley. Dating from 1926, it is the culmination of his theoretical writings and an early attempt to fit mechanization into the fabric of European warfare. In this work, Fuller presents a comprehensive theory of war.

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War in European History

First published over thirty years ago, War in European History is a brilliantly written survey of the changing ways that war has been waged in Europe, from the Norse invasions to the present day. Far more than a simple military history, the book serves as a succinct and enlightening overview of the development of European society as a whole over the last millennium. From the Norsemen and the world of the medieval knights, through to the industrialized mass warfare of the twentieth century, Michael Howard illuminates the way in which warfare has shaped the history of the Continent, its effect on social and political institutions, and the ways in which technological and social change have in turn shaped the way in which wars are fought. This new edition includes a fully updated further reading and a new final chapter bringing the story into the twenty-first century, including the invasion of Iraq and the so-called “War against Terror.”

Until comparatively recently the study of war has been didactic and normative: that is, the wars of the past were studied in order to deduce either immutable principles or lines of development as guides to the efficient conduct of the war in the future. So long as the organized use, or threatened use, of force, still remains an instrument in the conduct of international relations, such analytic studies will continue to be needed. But to abstract war from the environment in which it is fought and study its techniques as one would those of a game is to ignore a dimension essential to the understanding, not simply of the wars themselves but of the societies which fought them.

The historian who studies war, not to develop norms for action but to enlarge his understanding of the past, cannot be simply a ‘military historian’, for there is literally no branch of human activity which is not to a greater or lesser extent relevant to his subject. He has to study war not only, as Hans Delbrück put it, in the framework of political history, but in the framework of economic, social, and cultural history as well. War has been part of a totality of human experience, the parts of which can be understood only in relation to one another. One cannot adequately describe how wars were fought without giving some idea of what they were fought about. There are now numerous books that take this philosophy as the basis for their approach to the history of war, and I have done little more than put together in a very superficial fashion some of the ideas I have gleaned from them. A list will be found in the bibliographical note at the end of this work. I have also benefited greatly from discussions with my colleagues Professors J. M. Wallace-Hadrill and Lionel Butler, who tactfully punctured

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Title: War in European History
Author: Michael Howard
Length: 171 pages
Publisher: Oxford University Press; Updated edition (April 15, 2009)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0199546193
ISBN-13: 978-0199546190

The First World War

The First World War

WHEN I had made good progress on this history I confided to a few friends what I was doing. They differed in age and interests, but all asked in virtually the same words: ‘What’s your thesis?’ I was taken aback. I had not started with a thesis consciously in mind. I was, as I always had been, intensely interested in the subject. Having devoted to its study some twenty years of my life, not counting my modest participation in it, I could not doubt that I knew more about it than most. I hoped that a fair number of survivors would welcome a condensed account in what I trusted would be readable form and that younger people would echo Southey’s young Peterkin with before long I felt gratitude to those who had asked the question. They had helped me to clear my own mind. I began to realize that there had always been a thesis at the back of it. I wanted to show what the war had meant to my generation, so large a part of which—and so much of the best at that—lost their lives in it.

I wanted to commemorate the spirit in which these men served and fought. The modern intellectual is inclined to look with impatience upon the ardor with which they went to war. To him it is obsolete. If so, I must be obsolete too. Looking back, the intensity—and I dare add the purity—of that spirit still moves me deeply. I speak particularly of the combatants, including leaders and staff. In the circumstances of that war a large proportion of men in uniform might almost as well have been company directors, clerks, grocers’ assistants, or street cleaners at home, for the most part useful, but martial only in appearance and not always even that.

I find in the soldier’s other virtues besides courage and self-sacrifice. Though their ardor became blunted, their comradeship never died. Then, though barbarity enters into all wars, they were in general remarkably free from this wickedness which soils the name of a patriot. They were called to the colors as volunteers or conscripts on a scale greater than had ever been known; yet, though this was a war of nations in which the scum was swept along beside the finest elements and the far larger average, it was not where Britain was concerned a savage or cruel war. Its most abominable episodes, such as the Armenian massacres perpetrated by the Turks, do not match the cold cruelty of the Second World War.

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Title: The First World War
Author: Cyril Falls
Length: 448 pages
Publisher: Pen and Sword Military; Reprint edition (February 19, 2015)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1473825490
ISBN-13: 978-1473825499

An Advanced History of India

Originally published in 1946, An Advanced History of India at once established itself as the standard work on the subject. The present edition brings the history up to 1978.The detailed record of events in supplemented throughout by a careful study of administrative, social, economic, and cultural developments. Close scrutiny of original sources has produced a clear and full picture of Indian civilization. Adequately provided with genealogical tables, bibliography, illustrations, maps and plans.

J. Coatman wrote in a review in the journal International Affairs that this book is “easily the most valuable history of India for the serious student.” According to his review, the first part on Ancient India “epitomizes all that the most recent as well as older scholarship has to tell us about this fascinating period…”, and the “Muslim and British parts of India’s history are treated with fairness and dignity and attention is drawn to the fundamentals of history – the growth of institutions, social and economic developments, and so on. Nowhere is there any rhetoric or mere opinion.”

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Title: An Advanced History of India
Author:  R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhuri and Kalikinkar Datta
Paperback: 1162 pages
Publisher: Laxmi Publications Pvt. Ltd.; Fourth edition (2016)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 9385750119
ISBN-13: 978-9385750113

Politics Among Nations: The Struggle For Power And Peace

The book introduces the concept of political realism, presenting a realist view of power politics. This concept played a major role in the foreign policy of the United States, which made it exercise globe-spanning power in the Cold War period. The concept also called for a reconciliation of power politics with the idealistic ethics of earlier American discussions about foreign policy.

Hans Morgenthau’s classic text established realism as the fundamental way of thinking about international relations. Although it has had its critics, the fact that it continues to be the most long-lived text for courses in international relations attests to its enduring value. Someone has said the study of international relations has for half a century been nothing so much as a dialogue between Morgenthau, those who embrace his approach, and those who turn elsewhere for enlightenment. After 50 years, the dialogue between Morgenthau and scholars from around the world continues more or less as in the past something with more intensity even in an “age of terror.” The new edition preserves intact Morgenthau’s original work while adding a 40-page introduction by the editors who explore its relevance for a new era. What follows the introduction are the perspectives of a dozen statesmen, scholars, and observers each offering insights on Morgenthau’s concepts and ideas as they relate to current crises on every continent. They bring up to date the dialogue that began in 1948.

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Title: Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace
Author: Hans Joachim Morgenthau
Length: 489 pages


In the past twenty years, the public fascination with military history has become a minor literary phenomenon on both sides of the Atlantic. It has centred overwhelmingly upon the Second World War. Indeed, at the extremities of the popular market, perceptions of the struggle between the Western Allies and the Germans long ago parted company with reality, and took on the mantle of fantasy borne a generation earlier by cowboys and indians. In the past decade, more surprisingly, Vietnam has also given birth to a major publishing industry. Some new books seek seriously to examine why the United States lost that war. Others, like the films they inspire, attempt to rewrite history, to present aspects of that sordid, doomed struggle in an heroic light.

It was the first war we could not win. At no other time since World War II have two superpowers met in battle. Now, Max Hastings, the preeminent military historian takes us back to the bloody bitter struggle to restore South Korean independence after the Communist invasion of June 1950. Using personal accounts from interviews with more than 200 vets — including the Chinese — Hastings follows real officers and soldiers through the battles. He brilliantly captures the Cold War crisis at home — the strategies and politics of Truman, Acheson, Marshall, MacArthur, Ridgway, and Bradley — and shows what we should have learned in the war that was the prelude to Vietnam.

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Title: The Korean War
Author: Max Hastings
Length: 389 pages
Publisher: Simon & Schuster; Reprint edition (October 15, 1988)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 067166834X
ISBN-13: 978-0671668341

International Relations & Politics Diplomatic History between the Two World Wars

Amidst the vast sea of literature that exists on the diplomatic history of the world between the two World Wars, J.C. Johari’s book stands out as a remarkable piece of work. Reflecting through research and analysis, it has been revised and enlarged in order to include the history of the Middle East and the Far Eastern countries like Japan and China. An account of the interwar period may be called a study of the diplomatic history of the major European powers. The major countries of the West were involved in various forms of commitments and negotiations. In a way, these efforts started the trend of “global negotiations”, which the governments of the major countries practiced in order to achieve their ends, not only during the times of war but also during the times of peace. It is hoped that this book will serve the requirements of students offering this course for graduate and post-graduate examinations as well as for competitive examinations.

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Title: International Relations And Politics: Diplomatic History Between Two World Wars
Author: J. C. Johari
Paperback: 489 pages
Publisher: Sterling Publications Private Limited; UK ed. edition (2019)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 8120715608
ISBN-13: 978-8120715608

The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: Renaissance to Revolution, 1492-1792 (Cambridge Illustrated Atlases)

This has been a very difficult book to write. In seeking to offer global coverage, an account of warfare, that includes land and sea, and moves away from the customary dominance by western European developments, I have become all too aware of my limitations. In addition, the discipline of writing in accordance with particular guidelines and a tight word-limit has been very demanding, and what has been discarded in endless redrafting could have made several books.

I have also been affected by limits on the number and detail of the maps. Yet this has also been an exciting book to produce. War, its conduct, cost, consequences, and preparations for conflicts’ were all central to global history in the early modem period: European discovery and trade linked hitherto separated regions, so force played a crucial role in these new relationships and in their consequences.

The conflict was also crucial to the history of relations between the states in particular regions of the world, as well as to the internal history of individual countries. I am most grateful to Geoffrey Parker, David Aldridge, Matthew Anderson, Kelly DeVries, Jan Glee, Richard Harding, Michael Hill, Knud Jespersen, and Peter Wilson for commenting on earlier drafts. A number of other S have also contributed to the production of the volume, especially Mary Scott and Liz Wyse; the collective nature of the historical enterprise is particularly apparent in the case of historical class. Personally, it has been most instructive to create this work. My other current project is a study of historical atlases, and my own effort has reinforced my more general conclusions: of the excitement and value of the game and of the need to appreciate the great difficulties that their compilation pose.

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Series: Cambridge Illustrated Atlases
Hardcover: 192 pages
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (May 31, 1996)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0521470331
ISBN-13: 978-0521470339

Military expenditure in Third World countries The economic effects

he level of military expenditure and its share in the national product in Third World countries are high and still rising. This is of great concern to all. The issues are complex and need to be studied with care, yet the literature is scant. This monograph is an attempt to analyze the economic effects of defense spending in less developed countries, within the broad framework of development economics.

Though it is principally addressed to economists and political scientists, it is fairly accessible to a wide readership. This book is a product of research conducted at Birkbeck College, University of London, over the last few years. The intellectual stimulus provided by the intense academic environment of Birkbeck, particularly the work done by Ron Smith on military expenditure in OECD countries and Britain, has been a great source of help and inspiration in conducting the analysis reported here. I have many intellectual debts to acknowledge. First and foremost to Ron Smith and Somnath Sen, who have read the whole book in manuscript form; their continuous suggestions, advice, help, and often telling criticisms, have contributed a great deal to my whole research program; so much so that I presume all remaining errors are theirs.

a careful study by an economist in Britain, which seeks to examine the economic costs and opportunities for defense spending in developing countries. Deger finds that increased military burdens ultimately depress growth by limiting savings, restricting investments, and constraining economic development. She is judicious and comprehensive in covering all aspects of this controversial subject

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Title: Military Expenditure: The Political Economy of International Security
Authors: Saadet Deger, Somnath Sen
Editor: Institut international de recherche pour la Paix
Publisher: Oxford University Press, 1990
ISBN: 0198291418, 9780198291411
Length: 186 pages
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