General structure of the plant body-an outline. General histology. The cell. Meristems. Tissues and tissue systems. The primary body. The origin and development of the secondary body and its relation to the primary body. Secondary xylem. Secondary phloem. Periderm and abscission. The root. The stem. The leaf. The flower-the fruit-the seed. Ecological anatomy.
Plant anatomy is the study of the shape, structure, and size of plants. As a part of botany (the study of plants), plant anatomy focuses on the structural or body parts and systems that make up a plant. A typical plant body consists of three major vegetative organs: the root, the stem, and the leaf, as well as a set of reproductive parts that include flowers, fruits, and seeds.
As a living thing, all of a plant’s parts are made up of cells. Although plant cells have a flexible membrane-like animal cell, a plant cell also has a strong wall made of cellulose that gives it a rigid shape. Unlike animal cells, plant cells also have chloroplasts that capture the Sun’s light energy and convert it into food for itself. Like any complex living thing, a plant organizes a group of specialized cells into what are called tissues that perform a specific function. For example, plants, therefore, have epidermal tissue that forms a protective layer on its surface. They also have parenchyma tissue usually used to store energy. The “veins” or pipeline of a plant are made up of vascular tissue that distributes water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant. Combined tissues form organs that play an even more complex role.